Eichhornia crassipes, ITS INVASIVENESS AND PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL

Main Article Content

María Fernanda Guevara Granja
Lenin Ramírez-Cando

Abstract

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a perennial aquatic plant, it has been used as an ornamental species for ponds. Native from Brazil, it has high reproductive and adaptive capacities. These factors have allowed E. crassipes to be among the 10 most invasive plants in the world propagating in more fifty countries on five continents, causing adverse effects on the native flora and fauna. It forms dense floating colonies that decrease the water flow in reservoirs, reducing the amount of light and dissolved oxygen concentration. Several methods have been applied to control this weed and other introduced aquatic plants. The main one is, is the herbicides application. However, different methods have greater public acceptance (e.g. manual removal, grinding and use of biological controls including weevils (Neochetina spp) and herbivorous carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)). Moreover, their characteristics, mentioned as negative (high adaptive capacity, growth in contaminated environments, etc.), are being deeply studied as tools in ex situ phytoremediation, principally as a tool for effective cleaning of effluents contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides and dyes discharged by various industries, opening new applications for this macrophyte.
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