Spectral characterization and monitoring of mangrove forests with remote sensing in the Colombian Pacific Coast: Bajo Baudó, Chocó

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Mauricio Perea https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4561-0251
Julian Leal Villamil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5100-2693
Fernando Oviedo Barrero https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5559-1504

Abstract

The Colombian Pacific has extensive areas in mangrove forests (MF), which is a strategic ecosystem of great environmental and socioeconomic for climate change mitigation. This work aimed to perform spectral characterization and monitoring of 66.59 km2 for four MF densities in Bajo Baudó (Colombia), using three Landsat images (1998, 2014 and 2017), combinations of spectral bands and three vegetation indices (VI) (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index - SAVI and the Combined Mangrove Recognition Index - CMRI). The results showed that the best combination of spectral bands for visual identification of MF corresponded to infrared color (NIR, Red, Green) and false-color composite 1 (NIR, SWIR, Red). The spectral sign of MFs had different behaviors in four densities under the conditions of high tide and low tide. During the 19 years analyzed, there was a difference of up to 17.9% in the average reflectance value in MF. Similarly, the values of VI were proportional to the densities of MF, but their value was reduced by tidal effects at the time of capturing the images; the largest increases in VI were recorded over the coastal area of land-water transition, where there is a strong interaction with the tidal condition. This research contributes to the spatial characterization and monitoring of MF with remote sensors and the spectral study of this important ecosystem in Colombia.
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