Climate Change according to Ecuadorian academics–Perceptions versus facts

Main Article Content

Theofilos Toulkeridis
Elizabeth Tamayo
Débora Simón-Baile
María J. Merizalde-Mora
Diego F. Reyes –Yunga
Mauricio Viera-Torres
Marco Heredia


Climate change has become one of the most important topics in each country’s government agendas. The current effects demand quicker actions in order to decrease the speed at which the global warming and climate is changing, which are commonly seen in global agreements to reduce pollution. However, the main changes to face and mitigate such phenomena depends on each country´s decision and not on global agreements as the causes are continent-wide although the effects and magnitudes may be local. One of the key components for an effective adaption and mitigation is the role that the population have over national decisions. For this reason, the level of awareness and knowledge about what is occurring in their surroundings vital, thus the importance of a correct information broadcast and education. For the aforementioned reasons, the current study compares the recent perception of a well-educated Ecuadorean community regarding the climate change worldwide and in Ecuador with the scientific evidence and historical facts, and how it affects its vulnerability to the climate change effects.
Abstract 2323 | PDF (Español (España)) Downloads 4615 PDF Downloads 750 EPUB (Español (España)) Downloads 11 HTML (Español (España)) Downloads 58 XML (Español (España)) Downloads 0


Aceituno, P. y col. (2009). «The 1877–1878 el Niño episode: associated impacts in south America». En: Climatic Change 92.3-4, 389-416. Online:

Adano, W. R. y col. (2012). «Climate change, violent conflict and local insti-tutions in Kenya’s drylands». En: Journal of Peace Research 49.1, 65-80. Online:

Agency, IEA: International Energy (2018). The CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. Online: https ://

Aguirre, N. y col. (2015). Vulnerabilidad al cambio climático en la Región Sur del Ecuador: Potenciales impactos en los ecosistemas, producción de biomasa y producción hídrica. Online:http : / / bit . ly / 2wKK4vv.

Allouche, J. (2011). «The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade». En: Food Poli-cy 36, S3-S8. Online: https://

Amiro, B. D. y col. (2001). «Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest». En: International Journal of Wildland Fire 10.4, 405-413. Online: 2wdrRqf.

Appleby, A. B. (1980). «Epidemics and famine in the little ice age». En: The Journal of interdisciplinary history 10.4, 643-663. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 32DbPSU.

Asrat, A. y col. (2018). «Paleoclimate change in Ethiopia around the last interglacial derived from annually-resolved stalagmite evidence». En: Quaternary Science Reviews 202, 197-210. Online:

Atwell, W. S. (2001). «Volcanism and short-term climatic change in East Asian and world history, c. 1200-1699». En: Journal of World History 12.1, 29-98. Online:

Baatz, C. (2013). «Responsibility for the Past? Some Thoughts on Compensating Those Vulnerable to Cli-mate Change». En: Developing Countries, Ethics, Policy & Environment, 16.1, 94-110. Online:

Barrow, C. J. (2012). «Biochar: potential for countering land degradation and for improving agriculture». En: Applied Geography 34, 21-28. Online:

Bataille, A. y col. (2009). «Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galápagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.25, 10230-10235. Online:

Battisti, D. S. y R. L. Naylor (2009). «Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.» En: Science 323.5911, 240-244. Online:

Bay, R. C., N. Bramall y P. B. Price (2004). «Bipolar correlation of volcanism with millennial climate change». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101.17, 6341-6345. Online: https://bit. ly/2Tl27A3

Beach, T. y col. (2016). «Climatic changes and collapses in Maya history». En: Past Global Changes Magazine 24.2, 66-67. Online: 2To0d1w.

Beeman, J. C. y J. C. R. Hernández (2018). «Understanding Global Climate Change from Andean Glaciers». En: ReVista (Cambridge) 18.3, 42-82. Online:

Bendix, J. y col. (2011). «El Niño meets La Niña—anomalous rainfall patterns in the"traditional.El Niño region of southern Ecuador». En: Erdkunde, 151-167. Online: https://bit. ly/2PwVU2S.

Berz, G. y col. (2001). «World map of natural hazards–a global view of the distribution and intensity of significant exposures». En: Natural hazards 23.2-3, 443-465. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 3amati3.

Biodiversity, IPBES Intergovernmental SciencePolicy Platform on y Ecosystem Services (2019). «Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services – unedited advance version». En: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Bonn, Germany.

Bonan, G. B. (2008). «Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests». En: science 320.5882, 1444-1449. Online:

Brainard, R. E. y col. (2018). «Ecological impacts of the 2015/16 El Niño in the central equatorial Pacific». En: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 99.1, S21-S26. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T5pX48.

Brecht, H. y col. (2012). «Sea-level rise and storm surges: High stakes for a small number of developing countries». En: The Journal of Environment & Development 21.1, 120-138. Online: https: //

Brönnimann, S. y col. (2019). «Last phase of the Little Ice Age forced by volcanic eruptions». En: Nature geoscience 12.8, 650-656. Online: https://

Brook, B. W., N. S. Sodhi y C. J. A. Bradshaw (2008). «Synergies among extinction drivers under global change». En: Trends in ecology & evolution 23.8, 453-460. Online: 2VrOyl6.

Brown, M. E. y C. C. Funk (2008). «Food security under climate change». En: Science 319.5863, 580-581. Online:

Buytaert, W. y col. (2010). «Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources management». En: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14.7, 1247. Online: https://bit. ly/2T5Cp3V.

Buytaert, W. y col. (2017). «Glacial melt content of water use in the tropical Andes». En: Environmental Research Letters 12.11, 114014. Online:

Cai, W. y col. (2019). «Pantropical climate interactions». En: Science 363.6430, eaav4236. Online:

Calliari, E. (2018). «Loss and damage: a critical discourse analysis of Parties’ positions in climate change negotiations». En: Journal of Risk Research 21.6, 725-747. Online:

Cassman, K. G. (1999). «Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96.11, 5952-5959. Online:

Cazenave, A. (2006). «How fast are the ice sheets melting?» En: Science 314.5803, 1250-1252. Online:

Chadwell, C. D. y col. (2016). «Thinning of the Quelccaya Ice Cap over the last thirty years». En: 2016 Cryosphere Discuss.

Chaves, J. A. (2018). «Genetic Consequences of Invasive Species in the Galapagos Islands». En: Understanding Invasive Species in the Galapagos Islands. Springer, 19-32. Online: https : / / bit .ly / 32y2ono.

Chen, J. L. y col. (2013). «Rapid ice melting drives Earth’s pole to the east». En: Geophysical Research Letters 40.11, 2625-2630. Online: 2PwnEol.

Christensen, T. R. y col. (2019). «Tracing the climate signal: Mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions can outweigh a large Arctic natural emission increase». En: Scientific reports 9.1, 1-8. Online:

Cifuentes Lira, L. A. (2008). «Cambio climático: consecuencias y desafíos para Chile». En: 2008 Temas de la agenda pública. 19. Centro Interdisciplinario de Cambio Global (CICG-UC), 6-22. Online:

Clauer, N. y col. (2000). «Fluctuations of Caspian Sea level: Beyond climatic variations?» En: Geology 28.11, 1015-1018. Online: 2vd2xkf.

Climate Change, IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on (2007). «Climate change». En: 2007 The physical science basis. Agenda. Vol. 6. 07, pág. 333.

Crona, B. y col. (2013). «Perceptions of climate change: Linking local and global perceptions through a cultural knowledge approach». En: Climatic change 119.2, 519-531. Online: https : / / bit .ly / 3cbt41L.

Cronin, T. M. y col. (2010). «The medieval climate anomaly and little ice age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean». En: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 297.2, 299-310. Online:

Crowley, T. J. (2000). «Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years». En: Science 289.5477, 270-277. Online:

Crowley, T. J., T. A. Criste y N. R. Smith (1993). «Reassessment of Crete (Greenland) ice core acidity/volcanism link to climate change». En: Geophysical Research Letters 20.3, 209-212. Online:

Cucalon, E. (1987). «Oceanographic variability off Ecuador associated with an El Nino event in 1982–1983». En: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 92.C13, 14309-14322. Online: https://bit. ly/2w7YC8r.

Dasgupta, S. y col. (2011). «Exposure of developing countries to sea-level rise and storm surges». En: Climatic Change 106.4, 567-579. Online: https://

Diamond, J. (2002). «Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication». En: Nature 418.6898, 700-707. Online: https : / / go .

Diaz, G. (2012). «El cambio climático». En: Ciencia y Sociedad, págs. 2-15.

Dolan, A. H. e I. J. Walker (2006). «Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks». En: Journal of Coastal Research, 1316-1323. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2Vuovdc.

Doney, S. C. (2006). «The dangers of ocean acidification». En: Scientific American 294.3, 58-65. Online:

Douglas, P. M. J. y col. (2015). «Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.18, 5607-5612. Online:

Duro Mota, E., M. T. Campillos Páez y S. Causín Serrano (2003). «El sol y los filtros solares». En: Medifam 13.3, 39-45. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2Vv9eIP.

Echegaray-Aveiga, R. C. y col. (2018). «Solar Energy Potential in Ecuador». En: 2018 International Conference on Democracy & Government (ICEDEG). IEEE, 46-51. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2uF6NbS.

Edwards, R. D. y col. (2004). «Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China». En: Energy policy 32.3, 395-411. Online: https://

El Universo (2018). El calentamiento global favorece aumento de incendios forestales. URL: 32yKBg4.

Enkvist, P., T. Nauclér y J. Rosander (2007). «A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction». En: McKinsey Quarterly 1, 34. Online: 2T33NPV.

Epstein, P. R. (2000). «Is global warming harmful to health?» En: Scientific American 283.2, 50-57. Online:

— (2001). «Climate change and emerging infectious diseases». En: Microbes and infection 3.9, 747-754. Online:

Esper, J., E. R. Cook y F. H. Schweingruber (2002). «Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability». En: science 295.5563, 2250-2253. Online:

Falkenmark, M. (2013). «Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security». En: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 371.2002, 20120410. Online: https://bit. ly/391B9nP.

Farmer, K. C. y col. (1996). «Sun exposure, sunscreens, and skin cancer prevention: a year-round concern». En: Annals of Pharmacotherapy 30.6, 662-673. Online:

Flannigan, M. y col. (2009). «Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest». En: Global change biology 15.3, 549-560. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T4Np19.

Francou, B. y col. (2000). «Glacier evolution in the tropical Andes during the last decades of the 20th century: Chacaltaya, Bolivia, and Antizana, Ecuador». En: AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 29.7, 416-422. Online: https://bit. ly/2Tjr3be.

Francou, B. y col. (2005). «Glaciers of the tropical Andes: indicators of global climate variability». En: Global change and mountain regions. Springer, 197-204. Online:

Frank, D. y col. (2015). «Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts». En: Global Change Biology 21.8, 2861-2880. Online: https://

Friel, S. y col. (2009). «Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture». En: The Lancet 374.9706, 2016-2025. Online:

Friman, M. y M. Hjerpe (2015). «Agreement, significance, and understandings of historical responsibility in climate change negotiations». En: Climate Policy 15.3, 302-320. Online: 3aakWgb.

Frölicher, T. L. y C. Laufkötter (2018). «Emerging risks from marine heat waves». En: Nature communications 9.1, 650. Online: https://go.nature. com/32yyfVh.

Fuertes, W. y col. (2019). «Data Analytics on RealTime Air Pollution Monitoring System Derived from a Wireless Sensor Network». En: International Conference on Information Technology & Systems. Springer, Cham, 57-67. Online: https://bit. ly/395mOXn.

Furley, T. H. y col. (2018). «Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America». En: Integrated environmental assessment and management 14.3, 344-357. Online:

Gabastou, J. M. y col. (2002). «Characteristics of the cholera epidemic of 1998 in Ecuador during El Nino». En: Revista panamericana de salud publica= Pan American journal of public health 12.3, 157-164. Online:

García-Garizábal, I. y col. (2017). «Evolución climática en la costa de Ecuador por efecto del cambio climático». En: Dyna 84.203. Online: https : //

Geng, X. y col. (2017). «Decadal modulation of the ENSO–East Asian winter monsoon relationship by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation». En: Climate Dynamics 49.7-8, 2531-2544. Online:

Githeko, A. K. y col. (2000). «Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis». En: Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78, 1136-1147. Online:

Gleick, P. H. (2014). «Water, drought, climate change, and conflict in Syria». En: Weather, Climate, and Society 6.3, 331-340. Online: 2uxYaj8.

Gornall, J. y col. (2010). «Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century». En: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365, 2973-2989. Online:

Goworek, H. y col. (2018). «Scaling sustainability: Regulation and resilience in managerial responses to climate change». En: British Journal of Management 29.2, 209-219. Online: 2VuhCZq.

Grace, J., F. Berninger y L. Nagy (2002). «Impacts of climate change on the tree line». En: Annals of Botany 90.4, 537-544. Online: 2PxIpA5.

Grau, H. R. y M. Aide (2008). «Globalization and land-use transitions in Latin America». En: Ecology and society 13.2. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 3893hnE.

Greenwood, S. (2014). «Water insecurity, climate change and governance in the Arab world». En: Middle East Policy 21.2, 140-156. Online: https://

Groucutt, H. S. y col. (2015). «Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa». En: Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 24.4, 149-164. Online:

Guanochanga, B. y col. (2018). «Real-time air pollution monitoring systems using wireless sensor networks connected in a cloud-computing, wrapped up web services». En: Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference. Vol. 880. Springer, 171-184. Online:

Gueri, M., C. González y V. Morin (1986). «The effect of the floods caused by “El Niño” on health». En: Disasters 10.2, 118-124. Online: 3ad0cEI.

Guo, Y. y col. (2018). «Quantifying excess deaths related to heatwaves under climate change scenarios: A multicountry time series modelling study». En: PLoS medicine 15.7, e1002629.

Haase, B. (1997). «The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on birds: update from Ecuador 1997». En: Cotinga 8, 64-65. Online:

Haines, A. y col. (2006). «Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health». En: Public health 120.7, 585-596. Online:

Harley, C. D. G. y col. (2006). «The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems». En: Ecology letters 9.2, 228-241. Online: 394PD6k.

Haug, G. H. y col. (2003). «Climate and the collapse of Maya civilization». En: Science 299.5613, 1731-1735. Online:

Hedlund, J. y col. (2018). «Quantifying transnational climate impact exposure: New perspectives on the global distribution of climate risk». En: Global environmental change 52, 75-85. Online:

Helgenberger, S. y M. Jänicke (2017). Mobilizing the co-benefits of climate change mitigation. Inf. téc. IASS Working Paper. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 3af90tN.

Hemery, G. E. y col. (2010). «Growing scattered broadleaved tree species in Europe in a changing climate: a review of risks and opportunities». En: Forestry 83.1, 65-81. Online: https: / /

Hemery, G.E. (2008). «Forest management and silvicultural responses to projected climate change impacts on European broadleaved trees and forests». En: International Forestry Review 10.4, 591-607. Online:

Henley, B. J. y col. (2015). «A tripole index for the interdecadal Pacific oscillation». En: Climate Dynamics 45.11-12, 3077-3090. Online: https://bit. ly/39iEwXq.

Herrero, S. T., D. Ürge-Vorsatz y K. Petrichenko (2013). «Fuel poverty alleviation as a co-benefit of climate investments: evidence from Hungary». En: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Summer Study (ECEEE) Summer Study Proceed-ings, 1605-1616. Online: 2VzYCJ3.

Hodell, D. A., J. H. Curtis y M. Brenner (1995). «Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization». En: Nature 375.6530, 391-394. Online:

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. y col. (2007). «Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification». En: Science 318.5857, 1737-1742. Online:

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. y col. (2018). «Global warming of 1.5C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strength-ening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty». En: ed. por V. Masson-Delmotte y col. Press. Cap. Impacts of 1.5oC global warming on natural and human systems.

Huang-Lachmann, J. T., M. Hannemann y E. Guenther (2018). «Identifying links between economic opportunities and climate change adaptation: empirical evidence of 63 cities». En: Ecological Economics 145, 231-243. Online: https://bit. ly/3acfObm.

Ibárcena, M. y J. M. Scheelje (2003). «El cambio climático principales causantes, consecuencias y compromisos de los países involucrados». En: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Quebec Canada.

Johansen, K. S. y col. (2018). The Andean glacier and water atlas: the impact of glacier retreat on water resources. UNESCO Publishing. Jones, P. D. y M. E. Mann (2004). «Climate over past millennia». En: Reviews of Geophysics 42.2. Online:

Jones, P. D. y col. (2009). «High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects». En: The Holocene 19.1, 3-49. Online:

Jordan, E. y col. (2005). «Estimation by photogrammetry of the glacier recession on the Cotopaxi Volcano (Ecuador) between 1956 and 1997/Estimation par photogrammétrie de la récession glaciaire sur le Volcan Cotopaxi (Equateur) entre 1956 et 1997». En: Hydrological Sciences Journal 50.6. Online:

Junk, W. J. (2013). «Current state of knowledge regarding South America wetlands and their future under global climate change». En: Aquatic Sciences 75.1, 113-131. Online: https : / / bit .ly / 2Tlp8Dd.

Kalkstein, L. S. y J. S. Greene (1997). «An evaluation of climate/mortality relationships in large US cities and the possible impacts of a climate change.» En: Environmental health perspectives 105.1, 84-93. Online:

Karl, T. R. y R. W. Knight (1997). «The 1995 Chicago heat wave: how likely is a recurrence?» En: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78.6, 1107-1120. Online:

Kayano, M. T., R. V. Andreoli y R. A. F. D. Souza (2019). «El Niño–Southern Oscillation related teleconnections over South America under distinct Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation backgrounds: La Niña». En: International Journal of Climatology 39.3, 1359-1372. Online:

Khasnis, A. A. y M. D. Nettleman (2005). «Global warming and infectious disease». En: Archives of medical research 36.6, 689-696. Online: https : / /

Knapp, A. K. y col. (2008). «Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems». En: Bioscience 58.9, 811-821. Online:

Kovats, R. S. y S. Hajat (2008). «Heat stress and public health: a critical review». En: Annu. Rev. Public Health 29, 41-55. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2Py5PVU.

Kovats, R. S. y col. (2001). «Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?» En: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 356.1411, 1057-1068. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2vnerYK.

La Frenierre, J. y B.G. Mark (2017). «Detecting patterns of climate change at Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador, by integrating instrumental data, public observations, and glacier change analysis». En: Annals of the American Association of Geographers 107.4, págs. 979-997.

Laraque, A. y col. (2007). «Heterogeneous distribution of rainfall and discharge regimes in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin». En: Journal of hydrometeorology 8.6, 1364-1381. Online: https://bit. ly/386YQd8.

Lhotka, O., J. K. y A. F. (2018). «Climate change scenarios of heat waves in Central Europe and their uncertainties». En: Theoretical and applied climatology 131.3-4, 1043-1054. Online: 32zZyOX.

Lobell, D. B. y col. (2008). «Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030». En: Science 319.5863, 607-610. Online: https : / /

Luque, A., G. A. S. Edwards y C. Lalande (2013). «The local governance of climate change: new tools to respond to old limitations in Esmeraldas, Ecuador». En: Local Environment 18.6, 738-751. Online:

Luterbacher, J. y col. (2004). «European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends and extremes since 1500». En: Science 303, 1499–1503. Online:

MAE (2017). Tercera Comunicación Nacional del Ecuador a la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático. Inf. téc. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador.

— (2019). NDC: Nationally determined contribution. Primera contribución determinada a nivel nacional para el Acuerdo de París bajo la Convención Marco de Naciones Unidas sobre cambio climático. Inf. téc. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador,

MacDougall, A. S. y col. (2013). «Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse». En: Nature 494.7435, 86-89. Online: https : / / go . nature . com/383wpwv.

Manzer, L. E. (1990). «The CFC-ozone issue: progress on the development of alternatives to CFCs». En: Science 249.4964, 31-35. Online: https: //

Markus, T., J. C. Stroeve y J. Miller (2009). «Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length». En: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 114.C12. Online: https://bit. ly/2wS0tyl.

Martens, W. J. M. y col. (1995). «Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a global modelling perspective». En: Global environmental change 5.3, 195-209. Online:

Martin, E. R. (2018). «Future projections of global pluvial and drought event characteristics». En: Geophysical Research Letters 45.21, 913-920. Online:

Mathisen, I. E. y col. (2014). «Fifty years of tree line change in the K hibiny M ountains, R ussia: advantages of combined remote sensing and dendroecological approaches». En: Applied Vegetation Science 17.1, 6-16. Online: 2T4yNiw.

Mato, F. y T. Toulkeridis (2017). «The missing Link in El Niño’s phenomenon generation». En: Science of tsunami hazards 36, 128-144. Online: https: //

Mauchamp, A. (1997). «Threats from alien plant species in the Galápagos Islands». En: Conservation Biology 11.1, 260-263. Online: 3a9y7xW.

Mayewski, P. A. y col. (2004). «Holocene climate variability». En: Quaternary research 62.3, 243-255. Online:

McClanahan, T. R., E. Weil y A. H. Baird (2018). «Consequences of coral bleaching for sessile reef organisms». En: Coral bleaching. Springer, 231-263. Online:

McManus, J. F. y col. (1994). «High-resolution climate records from the North Atlantic during the last interglacial». En: Nature 371.6495, 326-329. Online:

McMichael, A. J. y A. Haines (1997). «Global climate change: the potential effects on health». En: Bmj: British Medical Journal 315.7111, 805. Online:

McNeil, B. I. y R. J. Matear (2008). «Southern Ocean acidification: A tipping point at 450-ppm atmospheric CO2». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105.48, 18860-18864. Online:

Meehl, G. A. y C. Tebaldi (2004). «More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century». En: Science 305.5686, 994-997. Online:

Menocal, P. B. de (1995). «Plio-pleistocene African climate». En: Science 270.5233, 53-59. Online:

Mertz, O. y col. (2009). «Adaptation to climate change in developing countries». En: Environmental management 43.5, 743-752. Online: https:// bit. ly/399cIVo.

Messerli, B., D. Viviroli y R Weingartner (2004). «Mountains of the world: vulnerable water towers for the 21st century». En: Ambio, 29-34. Online:

Milly, P. C., K. A. Dunne y A. V. Vecchia (2005). «Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate». En: Nature 438.7066, 347. Online: https: / / go . nature . com/3806Uwg.

Milner, A. M. y col. (2017). «Glacier shrinkage driving global changes in downstream systems». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114.37, 9770-9778. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 3chokrF.

Miranzo, M. (2015). «Las consecuencias del cambio climático en el MAGREB». En: UNISCI discussion papers, 127-150. Online:

Moberg, A. y col. (2005). «Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low-and high-resolution proxy data». En: Nature 433.7026, 613-617. Online: https://go.nature. com/2ve9IZt.

Moret, P. y col. (2016). «Climate warming effects in the tropical Andes: first evidence for upslope shifts of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in Ecuador». En: Insect Conservation and Diversity 9.4, 342-350. Online:

Moritz, M. A. y col. (2012). «Climate change and disruptions to global fire activity». En: Ecosphere 3.6, 1-22. Online:

Müller, B., N. Höhne y C. Ellermann (2009). «Differentiating (historic) responsibilities for climate change». En: Climate Policy 9.6, 593-611. Online:

Neukom, R. y col. (2019a). «Consistent multidecadal variability in global temperature reconstructions and simulations over the Common Era». En: Nature Geoscience 12.7. Online: https://bit. ly/2Vuk2XZ.

Neukom, R. y col. (2019b). «No evidence for globally coherent warm and cold periods over the preindustrial Common Era». En: Nature Geoscience 12.7.

O’Brien, K. L. y J. Wolf (2010). «A values-based approach to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change». En: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1.2, 232-242. Online: https://bit. ly/2wboOPu.

Olesen, J. E. y M. Bindi (2002). «Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy». En: European journal of agronomy 16.4, 239-262. Online: https : / / bit . ly/2PwbifT.

Overpeck, J. y col. (1997). «Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries». En: Science 278.5341, 1251-1256. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2I1jv7E.

P., Zhai. y col. (2016). «The strong El Niño of 2015/16 and its dominant impacts on global and China’s climate.» En: Springer link 30, 283-29. Online:

Padilla, O. y col. (2017). «Modeling of the ecological niches of the anopheles spp in Ecuador by the use of geo-informatic tools». En: Spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology 21, 1-11. Online:

Page, E. A. (2008). «Distributing the burdens of climate change». En: Environmental Politics 17.4, 556-575. Online:

Page, E. A y C. Heyward (2017). «Compensating for climate change loss and damage». En: Political Studies 65.2, 356-372. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2VwfKPE.

Patz, J. A. y col. (1996). «Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases». En: Jama 275.3, 217-223. Online:

Patz, J. A. y col. (2005). «Impact of regional climate change on human health». En: Nature 438.7066, 310. Online:

Pelling, M. y J. I. Uitto (2001). «Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change». En: Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 3.2, 49-62. Online:

Poulenard, J. y col. (2001). «Runoff and soil erosion under rainfall simulation of Andisols from the Ecuadorian Páramo: effect of tillage and burning». En: Catena 45.3, 185-207. Online: https://

Prather, M. y C. M. Spivakovsky (1990). «Tropospheric OH and the lifetimes of hydrochlorofluorocarbons». En: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 95.D11, 18723-18729. Online: https://

Rahn, E. y col. (2014). «Climate change adaptation, mitigation and livelihood benefits in coffee production: where are the synergies?» En: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19.8, 1119-1137. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T84wiA.

Rajamani, L. (2000). «The principle of common but differentiated responsibility and the balance of commitments under the climate regime». En: Rev. Eur. Comp. & Int’l Envtl. L. 9, 120. Online:

Rajamani, L. y J. Brunnée (2017). «The Legality of Downgrading Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement: Lessons from the US Disengagement». En: Journal of Environmental Law 29.3, 537-551. Online: 2HZhfOx.

Rampino, M. R. y S. Self (1993). «Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago». En: Quaternary Research 40.3, 269-280. Online:

Reguero, B. G. y col. (2015). «Effects of climate change on exposure to coastal flooding in Latin America and the Caribbean». En: PLoS One, 1-9. Online:

Reuveny, R. (2007). «Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict». En: Political geography 26.6, 656-673. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T5HIQx.

Richerson, P. J., R. Boyd y R. L. Bettinger (2001). «Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? A climate change hypothesis». En: American Antiquity 66.3, 387-411. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T5tSxA.

Riedinger, M. A. y col. (2002). «A 6100 14 C yr record of El Niño activity from the Galápagos Islands». En: Journal of Paleolimnology 27.1, 1-7. Online:

Rightmire, G. P. (2008). «Homo in the Middle Pleistocene: hypodigms, variation, and species recognition». En: Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews: Issues, News, and Reviews 17.1, 8-21. Online:

Rodbell, D. T. y col. (1999). «An 15,000-year record of El Niño-driven alluviation in southwestern Ecuador». En: Science 283.5401, 516-520. Online:

Rogers, D. J. y S. E. Randolph (2000). «The global spread of malaria in a future, warmer world». En: Science 289.5485, 1763-1766. Online: https://

Rojas, J. (2016). «Society, Environment, Vulnerability, and Climate Change in Latin America: Challenges of the Twenty-first Century». En: Latin American Perspectives 43.4, 29-42. Online: https: //

Roque Albelo, L. y C. Causton (1999). «El Niño and introduced insects in the Galapagos Islands: different dispersal strategies, similar effects». En: Noticias de Galápagos 60, 30-36. Online: https://

Rossel, F. y E. Cadier (2009). «El Niño and prediction of anomalous monthly rainfalls in Ecuador». En: Hydrological Processes: An International Journal 23.22, 3253-3260. Online: 2Tqkhk7.

Rubino, M. y col. (2016). «Low atmospheric CO2 levels during the Little Ice Age due to coolinginduced terrestrial uptake». En: Nature Geoscience 9.9, 691-694. Online: 2TmQ859.

Rueda, D. y col. (2019). «Preventing extinctions: planning and undertaking invasive rodent eradication from Pinzon Island, Galapagos». En: Island invasives: scaling up to meet the challenge 62, 51. Online:

Ruiz, W. y A. Roeger (1994). «The socioeconomic impact of malaria in Colombia and Ecuador». En: Health Policy and Planning 9.2, 144-154. Online:

Sathre, R. y L. Gustavsson (2011). «Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels». En: Biomass and Bioenergy 35.7, 2506-2516. Online:

Schofield, E. K (1989). «Effects of introduced plants and animals on island vegetation: examples from Galápagos Archipelago». En: Conservation Biology 3.3, 227-239. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2VAU4lk.

Schramski, J. R., D. K. Gattie y J. H. Brown (2015). «Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind». En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.31, 9511-9517. Online:

Séguin, J. y col. (2008). «Human health in a changing climate: a Canadian assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity». En: Human health in a changing climate, pág. 1.

Shea, J. J. (2008). «Transitions or turnovers? Climatically-forced extinctions of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the east Mediterranean Levant». En: Quaternary Science Reviews 27.23-24, 2253-2270. Online:

Sissoko, K. y col. (2011). «Agriculture, livelihoods and climate change in the West African Sahel». En: Regional Environmental Change 11.1, 119-125. Online:

Skillington, T. (2018). Climate change and intergenerational justice. Routledge.

Solomon, S. y col. (2009). «Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions». En: Proceedings of the national academy of sciences 106.6, 1704-1709. Online:

Stewart-Ibarra, A. M. y R. Lowe (2013). «Climate and non-climate drivers of dengue epidemics in southern coastal Ecuador». En: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 88.5, 971-981. Online:

Stewart-Ibarra, A. M. y col. (2014). «Spatiotemporal clustering, climate periodicity, and socialecological risk factors for dengue during an outbreak in Machala, Ecuador, in 2010». En: BMC infectious diseases 14.1, 610. Online: https://bit. ly/3ceKPxl.

Stott, P. A., D. A. Stone y M. R. Allen (2004). «Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003». En: Nature 432.7017, 610-614. Online:

Sullivan, C. (2002). «Calculating a water poverty index». En: World development 30.7, 1195-1210. Online:

Svarva, H. L. y col. (2018). «Little Ice Age summer temperatures in western Norway from a 700-year tree-ring chronology». En: The Holocene 28.10, 1609-1622. Online:

Telégrafo, El (2016). «Cambio Climático: acercamiento a sus efectos en Ecuador». En: PUNTO DE VISTA. 05 October 2016.

Terneus, A. y A. Gioda (2006). «In search of colonial El Niño events and a brief history of meteorology in Ecuador». En: Advances in Geosciences. Online:

Terrell, J. E. y col. (2003). «Domesticated landscapes: The subsistence ecology of plant and animal domestication». En: Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 10.4, 323-368. Online: 2wPCSOM.

Thomas, C. D. y col. (1999). «Increased El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming». En: Nature 398.6729, pág. 694.

Timmermann, A. y col. (1999). «Increased El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming». En: Nature 398.6729, 694-697. Online: https : / / go . nature . com / 2PuSeyG.

Tol, R. S. y H. Dowlatabadi (2001). «Vector-borne diseases, development & climate change». En: Integrated Assessment 2.4, 173-181. Online: https://

Torre, L. A. y col. (2015). «Global cancer statistics, 2012». En: CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 65.2, 87-108. Online:

UNDP (2009). Informe sobre desarrollo humano, 2007–2008: El desafío climático del siglo XXI. Inf. téc. Santiago: United Nations Development Program.

Urquía, D. y col. (2019). «Psidium guajava in the Galapagos Islands: population genetics and history of an invasive species». En: PloS one 14.3, e0203737. Online:

Valdivia, C. y col. (2010). «Adapting to climate change in Andean ecosystems: Landscapes, capitals, and perceptions shaping rural livelihood strategies and linking knowledge systems». En: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100.4, 818-834. Online:

Van Vuuren, D. P. y col. (2007). «Stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels: an assessment of reduction strategies and costs». En: Climatic change 81.2, 119-159. Online: https : / /

Veettil, B. K. y col. (2016). «Influence of ENSO and PDO on mountain glaciers in the outer tropics: case studies in Bolivia». En: Theoretical and applied climatology 125.3-4, 757-768. Online: https: //

Veettil, B. K. y col. (2017). «Glacier monitoring and glacier-climate interactions in the tropical Andes: A review». En: Journal of South American Earth Sciences 77, 218-246. Online: https:// bit. ly/2wgx8x6.

Verchot, L. V. y col. (2007). «Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry». En: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change 12.5, 901-918. Online: https://bit. ly/2wgxx2A.

Walther, G. R. y col. (2002). «Ecological responses to recent climate change». En: Nature 416.6879, 389. Online:

Warren, R. y col. (2013). «Quantifying the benefit of early climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss». En: Nature Climate Change 3.7, 678-682. Online: 386VLtB.

Wassmann, R. y col. (2009). «Climate change affecting rice production: the physiological and agronomic basis for possible adaptation strategies». En: Advances in agronomy 101, 59-122. Online:

Watson, R. T. y col. (1998). The regional impacts of climate change. An assessment of vulnerability. Inf. téc. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II, 517.

Wikelski, M. y col. (2004). «Galápagos birds and diseases: invasive pathogens as threats for island species». En: Ecology and Society 9.1. Online:

Wilke, A. B., J. C. Beier y G. Benelli (2019). «Complexity of the relationship between global warming and urbanization–an obscure future for predicting increases in vector-borne infectious diseases». En: Current opinion in insect science. Online:

Williams, M. y col. (2016). «The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere». En: Earth’s Future 4.3, 34-53. Online:

Worm, B. y col. (2006). «Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services». En: science 314.5800, 787-790. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 2T8Y1fD.

Wu, K. y col. (2019). «Glacier mass balance over the central Nyainqentanglha Range during recent decades derived from remote-sensing data». En: Journal of Glaciology 65.251, 422-439. Online:

Wu, X. y col. (2016). «Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation». En: Environment international 86, 14-23. Online: https : / / bit . ly / 3abzdJx.

Yarleque, C. y col. (2018). «Projections of the future disappearance of the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Central Andes». En: Scientific reports 8.1, 1-11. Online:

Yates, D. N. (1997). «Climate change impacts on the hydrologic resources of South America: an annual, continental scale assessment». En: Climate research 9.1-2, 147-155. Online: 2uGSnYO.

Zenghelis, D. (2006). Stern Review: The economics of climate change. Ed. por HM Treasury. London, England.

Zografos, C., M. C. Goulden y G. Kallis (2014). «Sources of human insecurity in the face of hydro-climatic change». En: Global environmental change 29, 327-336. Online: https:/ / 2PxC0VC.

Zubieta, R., A. Getirana y W. Espinoza J. C. andLavado (2015). «Impacts of satellite-based precipitation datasets on rainfall–runoff modeling of the Western Amazon basin of Peru and Ecuador». En: Journal of Hydrology 528, 599-612. Online: